CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION
Materials And Construction Products
The products that we use in the construction of buildings and infrastructures are manufactured from raw material extracted directly from Nature, from non-renewable sources, and after more or less intense transformation processes are placed on site.
The intensity of the transformation of the raw material, in which large amounts of water and energy are used, is aimed at manufacturing quality products that meet the requirements established in the regulations, and that are durable, that is to say, that do not deteriorate due to the action of weather phenomena, environmental aggression, or continuous use.
Some related materials in the table cause a high impact of negative character in the environment but their quantification in the building is low, others are of little consequence but are used massively in construction, others can cause severe dangers to human health. In any case, to analyze a product, it is necessary to define and quantify its performance and performance in each constructive unit, and its impact on the entire work.
It is also important to note that the quantification of materials per building area is conditioned mainly by the building typology, by the type of structure chosen for its configuration and by the architectural design, which has a decisive impact on the envelope systems (facades) and covers) and coatings.
The raw material used in the manufacture of construction materials can have different origin:Extracted directly from nature, from non-renewable sources or with slow renewal rates concerning the rate of use, such as wood.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION
From recycled material coming from the demolition of buildings and infrastructures, which is processed and transformed giving rise to new products.From the mixture of raw material and recycled plastic, in varying percentages.Of the reuse of selected products from the demolition of buildings.
A first classification of the construction products is made according to the needs of manufacturing or transformation of the raw material to be used, establishing three broad groups:
NATURAL like stone, aggregates, wall, cork or even sheep’s wool used in bioconstruction as insulators, which require prior cleaning treatments only for placement on site.
TRANSFORMED, those that require complex manufacturing processes to be used, also called artificial, as in the case of concrete, or synthetic, or synthetic in the case of plastics. MIXES, or compounds, those in which the raw material is mixed with processed or synthetic products, such as agglomerated boards, in which the wood is combined with synthetic resins or the BTC in which
The earth is stabilized with hydraulic lime or cement to prevent deterioration with moisture.Traditionally, in the manufacture of some materials waste and waste from other industries have been used, as in the case of cement, in which the additions come from thermal power stations or the manufacture of ferrosilíceas alloys, decreasing the fractions of resources not renewable and valuing or valuing the waste.The reuse of construction elements or parts has been prevalent in the history of construction, the demolition material charged a very high value in the market
especially the tiles or elements of wood or steel decorated which were restored and placed in work.The construction industry puts at our disposal a wide variety of products of different NATURE and FORMAT for the construction of structural systems and enclosures, which we select after a meticulous analysis, in order that they respond to the necessary requirements demanded by the structure established in the regulations, to the growing demand for quality in the built work, and to the principles of sustainable construction, considering purely formal or aesthetic, economic, technical issues, by tradition, or according to the context in which the work is carried out. Locate
Description And Analysis Of Products Used In Construction
Next and synthetically, we offer a global view of what materials are commonly used in the construction sector and what negative impacts they cause on the environment, to have an approximation to the problem and be able to propose the corrective measures that lead us to a sustainable consumption trend in the construction sector.
The classification of construction products according to the construction elements where they are located in what we are going to consider describing them because although they are similar products, there are differences derived from the requirements depending on the use and the solicitations to which they are subjected. During the useful life.
The envelopes are the building systems that make up the facades and roofs of buildings, and that has the critical mission of protecting them and generating interior living spaces.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the new architectural languages imported from Europe, promoted the reduction of the dimensions of the envelope and the construction of flat roofs, which led to the necessary use of waterproofing and insulation, and the need for use of active conditioning measures to guarantee the comfort of buildings, forgetting the traditional bioclimatic resources.
In the construction of roofs products derived from ceramic materials and concrete are used, requiring waterproofing sheets flat roofs (1-5% slope) and inclined roofs of slight hills according to roofing material (CTE HS1), in addition to insulation material according to climatic zones.
The traditional massive facades are constructed of ceramic brick or lightened concrete block, taken with cement mortar. From the second half of the twentieth century, to avoid energy losses and moisture condensation, they began to introduce insulation materials, housed in air chambers or fixed to the wall on the outside of the building.
The most modern facades, promoted by the CTE DB HS1, include metal profiles for anchoring cladding pieces, insulation elements, and interior layers.
The Impacts Associated With The Envelopes Are Characterized By:
Constituent materials, thicknesses of construction systems, and weight.
Percentage of holes in the facades and roofs.
Energy saving in the use phase of the building.
Maintenance of the envelope and durability.
The insulation is achieved by constructive provisions, air chambers, low-density materials, or with specific reinforcement products.
Isolation Products Are Classified Into The Following Groups
Mineral wool is an inorganic substance made from mineral fibers (siliceous sand and basaltic rock), with excellent thermal and acoustic insulation properties, combined with exceptional protection against fire. Rock wool, Glass wool
Recent news: Knauf Insulation presented, for the first time, at the Novabuild Fair its new insulation product: SUPAFIL Mineral Wool to inject
Polymeric products: They are those with the highest performance, but it is necessary to avoid those that have used HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbons or chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, and that produce toxic residues.
Extruded polystyrene (XPS): It is high performance insulation and high resistance to weathering agents and aging. It is the only thermal insulator able to get wet without losing its properties.
Expanded polystyrene (EPS): It is high performance insulation and high resistance to weathering agents and aging.
PUR / PIR polyurethane: it is used in the form of rigid panels or application projected on site of light, rigid foam, with more than 90% of the cells closed and very insulating. It has a high adherence on any surface, it does not absorb environmental humidity and the price ratio insulating capacity is excellent. It has a high degree of combustion that makes it be replaced by other products such as mineral wool that is flame retardant.
Polymeric Insulation Products Can Cause The Following Negative Impacts On The Environment:
VOC emissions of volatile organic compounds or chlorofluorocarbons CFCs,
Filtrations to wastewater of high loads of organic compounds,
Production of large quantities of used solvents and non-recyclable waste,
High energy consumption in manufacturing.
Reflective light products: reflective multilayer sheets (LRMCs) sheets and thermo-reflective screens, composed of synthetic or natural fibrous materials, which reduce thermal transfer by conduction-convection (polyester, wool, linen, hemp …) and materials with air bubbles that reduce thermal transfer by conduction-convection.
Cellular glass: insulation made of recycled glass, which is sponged by thermal processes appearing a network of air bubbles inside. It is an insulator with excellent mechanical characteristics and low water absorption. It is a non-combustible material.
Natural products: they are ecological because they require light manufacturing procedures, but they need to be treated against insects and fungi, and the precaution must be taken that they do not become saturated with water because they lose their insulating properties.